Ammonium Bicarbonate plays an important role in puffing of Bakery Products. The height, width or diameter of the biscuit is attained with the held of Ammonium bicarbonate. It starts its function of puffing by releasing ammonia and co2 at room temperature. So if you have visited near mixing or rotary section you will feel itching in your eyes i.e. due to release of Ammonia gas. Ammonium bicarbonate is completely dissociate you will read complete story below.
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What is Ammonium Bicarbonate?
Ammonium bicarbonate or also known as ammonium hydrogen carbonate is an ingredient used in the leavening or raising for crackers, cookies and biscuits, breads, cakes and many other bakery products.
It is in white powdery crystalline form having a pungent smell and odor of ammonia which stingers in nose and is described as a chemical salt.
Ammonium Bicarbonate chemical formula is NH4HCO3,
Molar Mass 79.056 g/mol,
Density: 1.59 g/cm³,
Melting point: 41.9 °C.
Ammonium Bicarbonate Function in Bakery Food Products
In Biscuits or Cookies Ammonium Bicarbonate is used as a leavening agent or raising agent which helps in puffing of cracker, cookies, biscuits or any baking product.
A leavening agent is any one of a number of substances used in dough and batters that cause a foaming action which lightens and softens the finished product.
When added to dough, they react to produce gases which form the nuclei for the textural development of a biscuit.
Some gases are released by leavening agents CO2, H2O, NH3 and air. Common sources of CO2 are Sodium and Ammonium Bicarbonate.
Ammonium bicarbonate is used in the food industry as an agent. They are used as leavening agents where in application low final moisture content is reached in baked products such as short dough and crackers.
The reaction is: NH4HCO3 → NH 3 + H2O + CO2
In this reaction ammonia will be baked out provided the final moisture content is low enough and product is thin and porous enough to allow the gas to escape otherwise ammonia may retain in the product and result in off flavour.
For escaping of ammonia during baking puncturing of biscuit is done. Rotating cutter does this. It is used in products that are to be baked to low moisture content. It can also be used in replacement with baking soda or sodium bicarbonate for low-moisture products like dry cookies or some cracker products.
Production of Ammonium Bicarbonate
Ammonium Bicarbonate is artificially Synthesized from ammonium sulfate and calcium carbonate.
Why Ammonium Bicarbonate used in Bakery Products
Ammonium bicarbonate’s usage is restricted to very low-moisture products as even moderate moisture levels will retain the ammonia and render the product inedible. The Moisture Level of Short dough variety biscuits vary from 1 % – 4%, and that for crackers maximum 2%. Therefore, no chances of ammonia trapping in food product.
Used as a component in the production of fire-extinguishing compounds,
It is also a basic fertilizer being a source of ammonia.
Ammonium bicarbonate is still widely used in the plastic and rubber industry
Used in the manufacturing of ceramics
Used in chrome leather tanning and for the synthesis of catalysts.
Suggested Dosage of Ammonium Bicarbonate
Generally recognized as safe(GRAS) is a FDA designation that a specific substance or ingredient is generally considered safe by experts, and so is exempted from the usual Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA) food additive tolerance requirements. Ammonium Bicarbonate is considered safe by FDA according to existing data and granted GRAS status.
As Ammonium Bicarbonate is widely known as safe, there is no limit on dosage of intake. However, we still recommend consumers to consult professionals before using large quantity of Ammonium Bicarbonate for long period.
No Significant Side Effect of Ammonium Bicarbonate identified Yet.
My name is Ankur Chauhan. Basically, I am From Haryana, India. I Am a Food Technologist, Completed my Mtech from NIFTEM. I love to share my knowledge with good Learners. I love to Travel different places. I have Many Blogs and Blogging is My Passion.