From soda to salmon, the food industry adds more than 15 million pounds of artificial food dyes into our food supply each year. Artificial dyes are added to so many foods, we hardly think twice about how Froot Loops get their bright colors or what makes cola brown. Dyes can be found in thousands of foods, including breakfast cereal, candy, and chewing gum.
Artificial colors are prevalent in our daily life. They are in our lipstick, toothpaste, nail polish, hair dyes and tanning spray, and they’re also added to medications and nutritional supplements to help us differentiate between the various pills in our pill organizer. And they create the colors in our clothing, bath towels, bed linens, shoes, carpets – their application is immeasurable.
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Artificial colors are produced synthetically to dye and enhance most foods and beverages. Also known as certified colors, artificial color additives must be approved by the FDA.
Origin of Artificial Colours
Since ancient civilizations, foods have been colored with a variety of plants, minerals, and animals, such as mulberries or copper ores. Natural sources were the only coloring agent used until halfway through the 1800s.
Then William Henry Perkin discovered the first synthetic dye in 1865 – a purple tint named mauve. Many others were soon produced, synthesised from coal tar.
The boom of processed food in the industrial revolution created a need for more stable and enticing colors in food. The process of preserving and storing products reduced the natural color, so dyes were added to compensate.
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Federal regulation of color additives began in the 1880s, starting with butter and cheese. Of the many dyes used, most were found to be unsafe for human consumption. By 1931, only 15 straight dyes could be used in food. The list was narrowed down after increased regulation in the 1960s.
Artificial colors dyes are produced in powder, granule or liquid form. Most are made with the raw materials synthesised from petroleum. The color of the dye is achieved by the azo-groups and various substituents that are selected for the process.
Red colors are produced by an aniline derivative and a naphthol derivative reaction. Yellow colors are made with acetoacetanilide and heterocyclic compounds. Blue is a result of benzidine derivative replacing the aniline derivative.
Lakes, a type of color additive that is less soluble form, are made through a longer process.
The dye is precipitated onto an insoluble base, such as aluminum hydroxide. The base absorbs the color, and is then dried and ground.
Application & Use of Artificial Colours
Artificial colors can achieve bright and reliable hues, without impacting the product’s taste or stability substantially. They are also less expensive than natural colors, due to their relatively cheap production and starting materials.
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There are two main types of color additives used in food production:
- Dyes, which are water solvent and sold as powders, granules or liquids. They are most commonly used in beverages, dry mixes, baked goods, dairy products, jams, pudding, pie filling, yogurt, etc.
- Lakes, which do not dissolve in water. A much more stable product than dyes, they are used in food with fats and oils that have less liquid. Lakes are used in coloring coated tablets, cake mix, donut mix, cheese, margarine, etc.
The seven FDA food certified color additives are:
Red 40, or Allura Red AC, produces red. Molecular formula: C18H14N2Na2O8S2
Red #3, or Erythrosine, produces pink. Molecular formula: C17H13N3O3
Yellow 5, or Tartrazine, produces yellow. Molecular formula: C16H9N4Na3O9S2
Yellow 6, or Sunset Yellow FCF, produces orange. Molecular formula: C16H10N2Na2O7S2
Blue #1, or Brilliant Blue FCF, produces blue. Molecular formula: C37H34N2Na2O9S3
Blue #2, or Indigotine, produces indigo. Molecular formula: C16H8N2Na2O8S2
Green #3, or Fast Green FCF, produces turquoise. Molecular formula: C37H34N2Na2O10S3
Two artificial colors are used in the coloring of the outside of food, but not the inside. Citrus Red #2 is used to color the skin of oranges and Orange B colors the skin of frankfurters or sausages.
The FDA certifies all batches of color additives before they can be sold. That includes all synthetic dyes, lakes and pigments. The testing includes an evaluation of physical appearance and at least 10 chemical analyses. No FDA GRAS exemption can be given to the definition of a color additive.
The FDA certifies batches into three categories, depending on how they are made and how they can be used. FD&C may be used to color foods, drugs and cosmetics. D&C may only be used in drugs and cosmetics. Ext. D&C are used in drugs and cosmetics applied externally. Click here for a list of artificial color additives approved by the FDA. (Bakerpedia)
Side Effects of Using Excessive Colours in Diet
Artificial colors contain various chemicals and are commonly derived from petroleum products. Although they have been linked to many health concerns, including allergic reactions, behavioral changes, and even cancer, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration continues to allow them to be used in food
Reported reactions to artificial dyes include:
- Anaphylactic reactions
- Ear infections
- Lack of concentration
- Mood swings
- Obsessive/compulsive behavior
- Sleep disturbances
- Temper tantrums
- Violent outbursts
Artificial food colors have been linked to attention problems, including attention deficit disorder (ADD), and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Two British studies showing that artificial colors increase hyperactivity and decrease attention span in children, both with and without learning disabilities, resulted in the enforcement of labeling of products containing artificial colors across Europe. Several European food manufacturers have since removed or replaced the artificial colors from their products3. Even American food manufacturers use natural colors in products exported to Europe – yet they continue to use artificial colors in the U.S.