Baking Powder Biscuits & Cookies – A Process Outline

Biscuits are the traditional type of flour confectionery which were, and can still be, made and baked in a domestic kitchen.

Now they are made mostly in factories on large production plants.

These plants are large and complex and involve considerable mechanical sophistication.

Forming, baking and packing are largely continuous operations but metering ingredients and dough mixing are typically done in batches.

How Biscuits or Cookies Baked?

There is a high degree of mechanization in the biscuit industry but at present there are very few completely automatic production plants.

This means that there is a high degree of dependence on the operators to start and control production plants.

It is essential that operators are skilled in the tasks they have to do and this involves responsibility for product quality.

As part of their training they must know about the ingredients and their roles in making biscuits.

They must be aware of the potential ingredient quality variations and the significance of these.

Two Type of Dough used in Biscuits Industries

There are basically two types of biscuit dough, hard and soft.

The difference is determined by the amount of water required to make a dough which has satisfactory handling quality for making dough pieces for baking.

Hard dough has high water and relatively low-fat (and sugar) contents.

The dough is tough and extensible (it can be pulled out without immediately breaking), like tight bread dough.

The biscuits are either crackers or in a group known as semi-sweet or hard sweet.

Soft dough contains much less water and relatively high levels of fat and sugar.

The dough is short, (breaks when it is pulled out) which means that it exhibits very low extensible character. It may be so soft that it is pourable.

The biscuits are of the soft eating types which are often referred to as ‘cookies’.

There are a great number of biscuit types made from soft doughs and a wide variety of ingredients may be used.

The machinery used to make biscuits is designed to suit the type of dough needed and to develop the structure and shape of the individual biscuits.

Secondary processing, which is done after the biscuit has been baked, and packaging biscuits are specific to the product concerned.

There is normally a limited range of biscuit types that can be made by a given set of plant machinery.

Biscuits Production Plant Capacities: Many biscuit production plants bake at the rate of 1000-2000 kg per hour and higher rates are not unusual.

Given this and the sophistication of the production line it is most economical to make only one biscuit type for a whole day or at least an eight-hour shift.

Start-ups and changeovers are relatively inefficient.

Baking Powder Biscuits – A Complete Procedure Outline

Main Steps involves in Baking Procedure:

  • Receiving of Ingredient and Chemicals
  • Premixing of Chemical with Water
  • Mixing of Ingredients
  • Forming
  • Baking
  • Packing
  • Dispatch

Receiving of Ingredient

Ingredients are received by various suppliers depending upon company to company.

Some companies booked premium suppliers for receiving premium quality ingredients and some can manage with lesser premium ingredients.

Moreover, Receiving of ingredients for every consignment must also checked for quality parameters given by GFSI which is checked by quality department in every company.

If received ingredient matches the quality parameter then quality department accepts the ingredient else rejects after informing concern departments.

Pre-Mixing of Chemicals with Water

Pre-Mixing is the first step of manufacturing of biscuits. Pre-mixing is done in a separate section where Work in process chemicals and less quantity ingredients are stored.

First, we dissolve these chemicals in water then dump it into the mixer for creaming and Mixing. Dissolving chemicals ingredient in water has its own significance.

Mixing of Ingredients

Mixing is a step wise batch process. It may varies from variant to variant. In some varieties mixing has been completed in 3 steps while in others it may complete in only 2 steps.

The mixing procedure is mainly divided into two steps:

  • Creaming
  • Mixing

The Creaming in done with all liquid material and mixing is done with major ingredients like wheat flour, Starch & Sugar. Even flavours and colours are also added during its second step.

Baking Process in Short


It is again of two types: Moulding and Cutting.

The machinery and equipment is entirely different in both types of forming.

In Moulding, there is a rotary setup which is used to form the biscuit with the help of three rolls basically, 1) Die Roll, 2) Pressure Roll/Rubber Roll & 3) Feed Roll.

The biscuits are feed into the die with pressure by Rubber roller which is cut by a knife placed exactly between feed roll and die roll. This is generally used for short dough variants.

In Cutting, the biscuit is cut by a cutting roll following a serial of Gauge rolls and layering table. It is slightly complected and generally used for hard dough variants.


Baking is the most important step in the process of biscuit manufacturing. Generally, in industries, biscuit travelling through a wire band in the oven which is baked under different zones of different temperature profiles.

Biscuit undergoes various change and heat treatment which gives baked biscuit at the end of the oven.


Packing of biscuits in different stock keeping units at different machines which is packed under primary, secondary and tertiary packing.


The Finished goods is then transferred from manufacturing site to market of warehouses for sale.


Leave a Reply

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.