Biscuit and cookies ingredients plays a vital role in baking profile. They are added in high to minute quantity which alters the quality of product high to low or low to high.
The quality of product is highly affected by the quantity of its ingredients, therefore the quantity you use to bake your cookies must be appropriate so as to get the desired quality of biscuits.
There are 20-25 major Ingredients which plays different roles in processing of Biscuits. The ingredients of biscuits or cookies are as follows:
- Function of Wheat flour in Baking (Biscuit, Cookies, Bread, Cakes):
A fine powdery foodstuff obtained by grinding and sifting the meal of a grain, especially wheat. Used chiefly in baking. The part of wheat grains are:
- Bran ( outer covering of grain)
- Endosperm( Kernel) is the starchy part
- Gives structure to baked products.
- Gluten is the protein in flour which gives strength and elasticity to batters and doughs.
- Use the correct type of flour for baking.
- Not all recipes require the flour to be sifted
2. Functions of Sugar and its derivatives in biscuits or cookies manufacturing (Baking)
Sugar is an important contributor to flavour by interacting with other ingredients. Depending on the food application, sugar has the unique ability to heighten flavour or depress the perception of other flavours.
- Increases spread ability (Finer sugar granules, more spreading)
- Sucrose increases the gelatinization temperature of starch.
- Granulated sugar incorporates more air into the batter than confectioner’s sugar.
- Air, a natural leavened, is present among sugar crystals but not in liquid sweeteners.
3. Functions of Fats and oils in Baking: Nearly all baked products contain lipids (mainly fats, often in significant quantities.
Role of Fats and oils in Biscuit manufacturing
- Imparting shortening, richness, and tenderness to improve flavour and eating characteristics;
- Enhancing aeration for leavening and volume;
- Promoting desirable grain and texture qualities;
- Providing lubrication to prevent the wheat gluten particles from adhering together to retard staling;
- Affecting moisture retention for shelf life improvement;
4. Role of Tetra Butyl Hydroxy Quinone in Baking: Highly Effective antioxidant and act as preservative for unsaturated vegetable oil. It also acts as stabilizer to inhibit autopolymerisation of organic peroxides.
5. Role of Salt in Baking (Biscuits, Cookies, Bread, and Cake): Salt plays a very important role in baking. It is more than just a seasoning or flavour enhancer.
- It functions to strengthen gluten structure and make it more stretchable.
- Primarily used for flavour in baked products it dominates the excessive sweetness of sugar.
- It imparts taste and has flavour enhancing properties.
- It forms a taste contrast in the background, which enhances the sweetness from the sugars present in the dough or batter.
- Too little salt causes the dough to ferment too fast and wild, while too much salt slows down the fermentation process.
6. Role of Invert Syrup in Baking (Biscuits and Cookies):
Higher solids invert syrup has greater viscosity and are used where minimum water is required to be added to the product & max. Preservative effect of invert syrup is achieved.
Functions of Invert Syrup:
- Greater shelf life
- Traditional texture
- Richer crust colour
- Lowers baking temperature
- Faster baking
- Reduction in breakage of biscuits
- Prolong freshness
- Invert syrup is sweeter than sugar and browns much faster.
- Fructose is particularly hygroscopic.
- Mixture of sugars crystallizes slowly than pure sugar.
6. Role of Emulsifiers in Baking Industries (Biscuits, cookies, Bread)
They are the natural or the synthetic substances that promote the formation and improve the stability of emulsions. In some cases they can be used to improve wetting property change the surface tension of water or aqueous solutions.
a)Sodium Steroyl Lactylate (Finamul 90)
b)GMS: Glycerol mono stearate (Finamul9750)
c)Lecithin: (Natural) it is acts as emulsifier. It reduces egg and fat requirement. It helps even distribution of ingredients. It prevents sticking and simplifies cleaning.
d)Finamul: It helps in better biscuit appearance, event heat distribution, impart crispiness and maintain also. It can reduce fat concentration to less than 25%.
7. Raising/Leavening Agents
A leavening agent is any one of a number of substances used in dough and batters that cause a foaming action which lightens and softens the finished product.
When added to dough, they react to produce gases which form the nuclei for the textural development of a biscuit. Our gases are used for leavening CO2, H 2 O, NH 3 and air.
Common sources of CO 2 are Sodium and Ammonium Bicarbonate.
- Sodium bicarbonate: Sodium bicarbonate is primarily used in baking where it reacts with other components to release carbon dioxide that helps in “rise”. It is active at acidic pH only and stops its activity at basic pH. Many forms of baking powder contain sodium bicarbonate combined with one or more acidic phosphates or cream of tartar.
2NaHCO 3 → Na 2 CO 3 + H 2 O + CO 2
- SAPP: It is a slow acting acid whose action is elevated by increase in temperature. It reacts with Sodium Bicarbonate in the oven to release sodium carbonate and water.
- Ammonium bicarbonate: Ammonium bicarbonate is used in the food industry as an agent. They are used as leavening agents where in application low final moisture content is reached in baked products such as short dough and crackers.
The reaction is: NH 4 HCO 3 → NH 3 + H 2 O + CO 2
In this reaction ammonia will be baked out provided the final moisture content is low enough and product is thin and porous enough to allow the gas to escape otherwise ammonia may retain in the product and result in off flavour.
- Colouring agents Added to give a better look to the biscuit.
- Flavouring agents: It imparts better taste to the biscuits. Flavour makes the end product pleasant and acceptable because a lot of changes take place from mixing of dough to the baking of final product. Added flavour gives rich appetizing taste.
- Sweetening agents: They impart sweetness to biscuits. Ex Sucrose, Invert syrup and Lactose.
Conclusion: We have shared a complete guide on Biscuit and cookies ingredients and their functions in baking. Baking includes biscuits or cookies and breads or cakes manufacturing.
These ingredients are highly used in baking industries for the large scale production of baking products.
Most of the people who working on shop-floor are unaware about the role of ingredients in biscuits or cookies while baking, so this article will definitely help you in enhancing your knowledge.
Summarizing the things, the Baking ingredients includes Wheat flour, sugar, fats and oils, TBHQ, salt, water, emulsifiers (Soya lecithin, finamul 90 GMS, finamul 9750 SSL), Leavening or Raising agent (ABC, SBC, SAPP), Dough conditioner (SMBS), Flavouring agents, Colouring agents, Sweetening agents, Enzymes, Vitamins and Minerals
Don’t forget to ask queries related to the cookies ingredients and their functions in baking of biscuits or cookies. Post your questions in Comment section below.