These are all fat and fat substitutes which are being used in baking products. Fat is basically a naturally occurring oily substance found in animal body and is an essential part of our diet and nutrition without which we can’t live.
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Fat and Fat Substitutes – Fat, Palm Oil, RPO, HVO, PUFA
Fat: Fat is the main Macro nutrient along with carbohydrates and proteins. It is crucial for normal body function. Fats, which consist of a wide group of compounds, are usually soluble in organic solvents and insoluble in water.
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Palm Oil: It is an edible oil which is derived from the mesocarp of the fruit of the oil palms, primarily the African oil palm Elaeis guineensis, and to a lesser extent from the American oil palm Elaeis oleifera and the maripa palm Attalea maripa.
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Refined Palm Oil: After milling, various palm oil products are made using refining processes. First is fractionation, with crystallization and separation processes to obtain solid (stearin), and liquid (olein) fractions. Then melting and degumming removes impurities. Then the oil is filtered and bleached.
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HVO : Hydrogenated vegetable oil is oil from a plant source which has been processed to have more hydrogen than is naturally present. This changes the properties of the fat and makes the oil solid at room temperature. It also lends the oil a longer shelf life.
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PUFA: Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are fatty acids that contain more than one double bond in their backbone. This class includes many important compounds, such as essential fatty acids and those that give drying oils their characteristic property.