Functions of Gluten in Bakery Products – Types of Gluten – Its Uses and Quality

Gluten Used as Baking Ingredient in Biscuits Manufacturing

Gluten, a Protein, is used as an ingredient in Biscuit Manufacturing and Bread and Buns Processing.

It is an important raw material in baking process and plays a crucial role in baking products. So in this post i will share about gluten like what is gluten, why we use gluten in baking products, how it affects our over all finished baking product.

Therefore, let us start with what is Gluten?

Also Read: Concept of Bread Making – Defining Gluten Formation with Functioning

What Is Gluten?

Gluten, as i have written above is a Protein. As a unique protein, it serves to provide a storage bank of amino acids for the developing seedling when germination occurs. When wheat is milled into flour and mixed with water, it forms a thick dough with unique viscoelastic properties. As the biscuits are leavening baking products it’s capable of retaining gas which makes it suitable for the preparation of leavened bakery products.

Basically Four types of proteins are present in wheat flour

  1. Albumin
  2. Globulin
  3. Gliadin
  4. Glutenin

Gluten is made up of latter two proteins namely Glaidin & Glutenin.

Gliadin in Gluten

  • It’s a monomeric protein.
  • Very Sticky when wet and very extensible, imparts adhesive properties to gluten, cohesiveness and elasticity.

Glutenin in Gluten:

  • Occur as multimeric aggregates of HMW and LMW held together by di-sulphide bond.
  • It’s large and complex protein which imparts strength, extensibility and firmness to gluten.
  • It contains most of lipids and form lipoproteins, which contribute to desirable baking characteristics of good quality gluten.

When dough is mixed with water, both the starch and protein absorbs moisture and mechanical action in the mixer on the hydrated protein forms a viscoelastic mass, a rubbery material, known as Gluten.

Gluten is essential for the production of leavened baked goods and this is what sets wheat flour apart from nearly all other flours.

Consisting of mainly gliadin and glutenin, wheat gluten is unique among cereal proteins based on its ability to form a cohesive and viscoelastic mass.

This rheological property makes it a dynamic material that is able to grow and keep the gasses within the dough during extended fermentation periods.

The viscoelastic nature also provides the oven spring (increase in height due to the expansion of gasses) that we see in the oven.

Also Read: Fat & Oils Used for Bakery Products – Saturated or Unsaturated

Quality of Gluten in Wheat Flour which is being used in Baking Products 

Gluten quality varies in different flours from being very extensible (it can be pul out a long way before breaking) to being very in-extensible or short, and also being more or less elastic (it will return to its original state after being stretched).

Protein Content of Gluten in Wheat Flour Decides the Type of Flour

The protein content and the quality of the gluten in flour is dependent on the type of wheat used. Strong flours: 10-11%; Medium flour: 8.5-10%; Weak Flour: 7-8.5% Gluten in flour produces a stretchy dough Provides carbohydrate, Vitamin B, calcium and iron.

Types of Gluten

There are basically 5 types of gluten known:

  • Vital wheat gluten
  • Solubilized wheat gluten
  • Complexed gluten
  • Hydrolyzed wheat protein
  • Protein isolate

Complete composition of Gluten:

The Gluten which is being used on industrial scale is vital wheat gluten which is approximately 73% protein (78% dry basis), 6% total fat, 6% moisture and <1% ash.  As i earlier written that the major components of wheat gluten are gluten and gliadin.

Also Read: List of Commonly Used Dough Conditioners in Bakery Products

Wheat gluten is sometimes referred to as a protein-lipid-polysaccharide complex because it contains, on average, 72.5% protein (77.5% dry basis), 5.7% lipids, and 10-15% starch including 6.4% moisture, 0.7% ash and minor amounts of dietary fiber.

Why we Use Gluten in Biscuits Cookies and Other Baking Products

  • Only 1-2% of gluten of total batch size of dough is used in baking products and biscuits to increase the machinability of dough.
  • To make the dough more stable in texture and with more protein network in it by the addition of appropriate amount of water to ensure proper hydration of the vital wheat gluten for it to function optimally in dough.
Drawback of using Excessive Gluten in a Batch

Excessive use of wheat gluten would result in drier dough that have a hard time with pan flow, and a higher than normal oven spring.

I hope i have shared an informative post for you. If our really like the post do share your feedback below. Keep Visiting bakery survey for more updates on Biscuits and Their ingredients.

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