Granulated Sugar came from sugar cane but European sugar is different which is extracted from the sugar beet.
Sugar, or sucrose, is a disaccharide used widely in baking. It is mainly used as a sweetener, and has other functionalities in baking as well.
Sugar is a major ingredient in Biscuits and Cookies manufacturing which is widely used in baking Biscuits.
There are a many functions of sugar in Biscuits and cookies baking. Granulated as well as milled sugar or pulverized sugar is used in biscuits manufacturing industrially.
There are many different types of granulated sugar. Some of these are used only by the food industry and professional bakers and are not available in the supermarket.
The types of granulated sugars differ in crystal size. Each crystal size provides unique functional characteristics that make the sugar appropriate for a specific food’s special need.
Also Read: Cane Sugar Use as a Bakery Ingredient
Types of Granulated Sugar used in Baking Products
There are different type of sugars as following:
- White granulated sugar is one of the world’s purest foods. It’s 99.9 per cent sucrose, refined from the natural sugars that occur in the sugar cane but with all ‘impurities’ such as mineral ash and polyphenols completely removed.
- Caster sugar has the same composition as granulated sugar, but the crystals are smaller so it dissolves quickly. It’s best for baking, especially light sponges and meringues.
- Icing sugar is white sugar ground to a fine powder so it dissolves quickly and makes smooth icing.
- Raw sugar and coffee sugar crystals are made from cane juice and are golden in colour. In nutrition, they are virtually identical to white sugar – at 99 per cent sucrose, they have a few minerals but not enough to give a great health advantage over white sugar.
- Brown sugar contains 95 per cent sucrose and 5 per cent molasses, which adds a lovely toffee flavour and moistness but no great nutritional benefits over white sugar.
The same applies to muscovado, demerara, rapadura and black sugars which are often preferred for baking.
There’s a little potassium, calcium, magnesium and other minerals but they’re not present in great quantities. Well, not enough to make me sit up and take notice when I’m only consuming a teaspoon here and there.
Also Read: What is Brown Sugar? – Its Uses, Functions, Advantages, Side Effects, Commercial Production
Perfect Sugar for Biscuits: The crystal size of Bakers Special is even finer than that of fruit sugar. As its name suggests, it was developed specially for the baking industry. Bakers Special is used for sugaring doughnuts and cookies, as well as in some commercial cake recipes to create a fine crumb texture.
Functions of Sugar in Biscuits or Coookies
- Granulated sugars (S30, M30, M31) are used for sprinkling purposes and also for milled purpose. Granulated sugar is milled or grind in sugar grinder and used in batch of a biscuits.
- Usually, the milled sugar is transferred to the mixer with the help of pneumatic conveying. The normal air pressure of pneumatic conveying is 2.5kg/cm3 which may vary industry to industry.
- Milled sugar provides fine particles and allows proper spreading of sugar and uniform color.
- Flavor: Sugar is required for fermentation (activates the yeast) which gives breads its yeasty flavor.
- Crust browning: Sugar can be broken down into its two monosaccharide units (glucose and fructose), which can take part in the Maillard reaction.
- Tenderizer: When the appropriate amount of sugar is added in the formula, a desirable amount of gluten develops and optimum elasticity is obtained. Sugars are also used in bread making to prevent stickiness due to its hygroscopic nature. In cakes, sugars tend to disrupt the gluten network, making the cake more short and crumbly.
- Shelf life extender: In cakes and cookies, sugar binds to water molecules which slows moisture loss, preventing baked goods from staling too quickly.
Also Read: What are Reducing Sugars & their Use in Bakery Products?
- Brown Sugar: retains some of the surface molasses syrup; tends to clump more than white sugar because of its higher moisture content.
- Confectioner’s Sugar:granulated sugar ground to a fine powder, containing 3% corn starch to prevent caking.
- Granulated Sugar:extra fine or fine crystals; most ￼common type for home bakers.
- Castor Sugar:smallest crystal; it is preferred for delicately frosted cakes or meringues; used as a sprinkle topping for aesthetic appeal.