Oxidizing Agents are improving the dough characteristics and make dough more stable by enhance gluten reformation. The use of oxidizing agents started long way back in 1900s, after that it was discovered that oxidizing agents provides the good baking properties in dough if added in optimum quantity.
The first true oxidizing agent was first discovered in 1967 by Jackel and Diachuk.
What is Oxidizing Agent?
The accurate definition of an oxidizing agent comes from chemistry, a substance that tends to bring about oxidation by being reduced and gaining electrons.
Here in baking products an oxidizing agent are used to improve the mixing and dough dividing properties and helps it to settle.
Oxidizing agents are used as dough conditioners, oxidizing agents are a necessity in the high-speed production of baking products likes breads, biscuits, cakes, pancakes etc.
Role & Function of Oxidizing Agents in Bakery products
Oxidizing agents primarily affect sulfur-containing amino acids, ultimately helping to form disulfide bridges between the gluten molecules. The addition of these agents to flour will create a stronger dough.
The Examples of Oxiding Agents are:
Ascorbic acid — Over-dosage of ascorbic acid could soften the dough.
Azodicarbonamide (ADA) — If trying to create a more organic product, it is best to find a natural substitute for ADA.
Bromate – Bromate oxidizes glutathione very slowly without the need for an enzyme.
Calcium bromate – reacts fast in dough
Potassium iodate – reacts fast in dough. It is banned in several areas of the world, including the EU.
Calcium iodate – reacts fast in dough.
Enzyme-active soy flour – one enzyme from soy flour, lipoxygenase, also has an oxidative effect on the protein of the gluten. However, the gluten-strengthening effect of soy flour is comparatively slight; its bleaching effect is more important.
Glucose oxidase– It oxidizes glucose into gluconic acid with the aid of atmospheric oxygen and transforms water into hydrogen peroxide.
Calcium peroxide – upon heating, calcium peroxide can be used in various oxidation reactions.
Ammonium persulfate – reacts fast
Potassium persulfate – reacts fast
Acetone peroxide – reacts very fast, highly explosive
Chlorine & chlorine dioxide – reacts in flour
Benzoyl peroxide – slow, reacts in flour and dough
Hydrogen peroxide – reacts fast
Cysteine – slow, over-dosage softens dough