Functions of Emulsifiers in Baking of Biscuits
There are 2 types of Emulsifiers basically used in baking of cookies and biscuits. They are:
Soya Lecithin (Natural Emulsifier)
Finamul (Synthetic Emulsifier)
They are the natural or the synthetic substances that promote the formation and improve the stability of emulsions. In some cases they can be used to improve wetting property change the surface tension of water or aqueous solutions. Surface active agents are widely employed in bakery industry.
- Soya Lecithin: It is found in almost all the bakery products being a very popular ingredient it is used for proper mixing of two immiscible liquids. Lecithins are oily substances that occur naturally in plants (soybeans) and animals (egg yolks).
Benefits of Using Soya Lecithin:
- Some people use lecithin as a supplement because of its high choline content.
- Choline is a micronutrient that is good for heart health and brain development.
- Soy lecithin (also marked as E322) is extracted from soybeans either mechanically or chemically using hexane. It’s actually a by-product of the soybean oil production.
Role of Soya Lecithin in Biscuits – Bakery Products
- It acts as emulsifier.
- It reduces egg and fat requirement.
- It helps even distribution of ingredients.
- It prevents sticking and simplifies cleaning.
- Finamul: Finamul is a synthetic emulsifier. It is a creamy white powder or paste, with a neutral fatty odour and taste. It is derived from the products have vegetable origin.
There are two Finamul which is used along with soya lecithin to improve the activity of soya lecithin in cookies and biscuits mixing process. They are Sodium Steroyl Lactylate (SSL) (Finamul 90), Glycerol mono stearate (GMS) (Finamul- 9750)
Finamul (90) acts as an emulsifier for food products, and it is used in ice creams, cookies, biscuits, chocolates, toffees, margarine, peanut butter, baked goods, fudges, butter, cheese products and pasta products.
Finamul 9750 is a unique premium blend of emulsifiers produced from raw materials derived from vegetable origin. Specifications are: Acid Value 50, Iodine Value 3 Max, and Melting Point 50-60. It is used as an emulsifier, dough conditioner in baked products. To be stored in original packaging in cool (max.20°C) & dry place, away from direct heat and sunlight. Finamul 9750 is hygroscopic and may cake during shipping and storage in non-ideal storage condition.
Role of Finamul in Bakery (Biscuits, Cookies, Bread)
- It helps in better biscuit appearance
- Even heat distribution
- Impart crispiness
- It can reduce fat concentration to less than 25%
Conclusion: Emulsifiers makes easy mixing when two immiscible liquids are added in same solution e.g. water and fat. So mainly in bakery industries there are 3 types of emulsifiers are used Soy Lecithin, Finamul 90 and Finamul 9750.
All have their different specifications and applications in baked products. In some cookies, we add both soy lecithin and Finamul but in few products there is no addition of Finamul as an ingredient. But the overall function of both the emulsifiers are same.
The main function is to make mixing easy, better biscuit appearance, add crispiness in product and it reduces the fat concentration to less than 25%.
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