Sugar is used in major quantity in bakery products because most of the bakery products are sweet and brown in colour which is due to the presence of sugar as a main ingredient. Sugar which his being used in bakery industry of two types one is with small granules codes as s-30 and another is relatively larger granules m-31.
Sugar which his being used in food industry is sucrose which is processed in sugar mills using sugarcane. Sugar cannot be used directly therefore it is used as its derivatives:
Type of Sugar & Its Derivatives
- Refined sugar
- Liquid Glucose
- Malt extract
- Invert syrup
The most common sugar used in sugar cookies is refined sugar and invert syrup. Liquid glucose is used in Glucose varieties only and malt extract is used in malt varieties of glucose.
Blackjack is also prepared in the industry with a different method which is used in bourbon cookies varieties. Honey is mainly used while baking honey cookies varieties. So here we will tell you about refined sugar and Invert Syrup only and their functions in Bakery Industry.
Functions of Sugar and Invert Syrup in Bakery Products
- Refined Sugar/grinned Sugar: Sugar helps cream air into the fat, maintain moisture, and contribute to the spread of cookies. Granulation of sugars affects creaming, spreading of the cookies during baking, and the surface texture of the cookies; as cookies are baked, un-dissolved sugar melts, and the dough spreads on the cookie’s baking surface.
- Increases spread-ability (Finer sugar granules, more spreading)
- Sucrose increases the gelatinization temperature of starch.
- Granulated sugar incorporates more air into the batter than confectioner’s sugar.
- Air, a natural leavened, is present among sugar crystals but not in liquid sweeteners.
Sugar is an important contributor to flavour by interacting with other ingredients of Cookies. Depending on the food application, sugar has the unique ability to heighten flavour or depress the perception of other flavours.
In bakery products, sugar is recrystallize as water is removed during baking, resulting in a crisp texture of Biscuits. This crispness is increased by the effects of browning.
Two different reactions are responsible for crust browning: caramelization and the Millard reaction. Caramelization results from the melting of sugars to create a deep brown color and new flavours.
The Millard reaction takes place when reducing sugars (e.g. glucose and fructose) and proteins are heated together.
The yellow-brown colours that develop in baked foods can be attributed to the presence of sugar. Sucrose itself develops colour through caramelization.
- Invert Syrup:
It is a mixture of glucose and fructose; it is obtained by splitting sucrose into these two components. Compared with its precursor, sucrose, inverted sugar is sweeter and its products tend to retain moisture and are less prone to crystallization. Inverted sugar is therefore valued by bakers.
Procedure: Add Water Heated up to 60°C then add sugar (heat up to 102°C). Add Citric Acid (heat up to 112°C) Now cool up to 102°C.
C 12 H 22 O 11 (sucrose) + H 2 O → C 6 H 12 O 6 (glucose) + C 6 H 12 O 6 (fructose)
Higher solids invert syrup has greater viscosity and are used where minimum water is required to be added to the product & max preservative effect of invert syrup is achieved.
Functions of Invert Syrup in Bakery:
- Greater shelf life
- Traditional texture
- Richer crust colour
- Lowers baking temperature
- Faster baking
- Reduction in breakage of biscuits
- Prolong freshness
- Invert syrup is sweeter than sugar and browns much faster.
- Fructose is particularly hygroscopic.
- Mixture of sugars crystallizes slowly than pure sugar.
Conclusion: We have shared an article on Sugar and its derivatives and their functions in Bakery Industry which tells you about the significant role of Sugar in bakery products.
Without sugar you can’t imagine about bakery. Refined sugar and invert syrup plays an important role in bakery.
The crispness and smoothness and the colouring of bakery product in depends upon the type of sugar we used. There is a list of functions of sugar in bakery products i.e. cookies and biscuits.
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