Types of Wheat Flour Used in Biscuits and Its Function

Wheat Flour: Two types of biscuit dough is basically used for the manufacturing of Biscuit which are as follows:

  1. A) Hard Dough: For Marie Gold/Crack Bite/ Salty Varieties/ Crackers/ High Count Party Crackers
  2. B) Short Dough: For Glucose/Cream Varieties/ Bourbon / Cookies

Hard Dough, or developed dough, is used to make Marie Gold/Light Crack Bite/ Salty Varieties/ Crackers/ High Count Party Crackers.

  • The fat and sugar levels are relatively low in Hard Dough. In both the cases sustained mixing action is required, to develop the gluten. The gluten development takes place in the mixer and the mixing time is relatively long (10 min).
  • The Gluten Level is higher in Hard Dough Varieties which is lies between 9.511.
  • It is prepared by the addition of Sponge and slurry followed by the fermentation; Therefore it is also known as fermented dough.
  • The Addition of Water is Almost Double in Dough lies between 6090 Liters in One batch which provides a good consistency to dough as well as good cutting of biscuits from the dough.
  • Hard dough is Extensible and Elastic which helps in cutting process of Dough.

Short dough, varieties are categorized by dough that lacks extensibility and elasticity.

  • The dough is also known as short bites.
  • Most sweet varieties of biscuits fall in the category of Short Dough.
  • For example glucose/cream varieties/bourbon/cookies.
  • The gluten content of short dough is lies between 78.5.

Compositions of Wheat Flour

Starch 71%

Protien 8.514%

Fat 1.54%

Water 13.14%

Pentosan <2%

Ash <1%

Four types of proteins are present in wheat flour

  1. Albumin
  2. Globulin
  3. Gliadin
  4. Glutenin


  • It’s a monomeric protein.
  • Very Sticky when wet and very extensible, imparts adhesive properties to gluten, cohesiveness and elasticity.


  • Occur as multimeric aggregates of HMW and LMW held together by disulphide
  • It’s large and complex protein which imparts strength, extensibility and firmness to
  • It contains most of the lipids and form lipoproteins, which contribute to desirable baking characteristics of good quality gluten.

When dough is mixed with water, both the starch and protein absorbs moisture and mechanical action in the mixer on the hydrated protein forms a viscoelastic mass, a rubbery material, known as Gluten. Gluten is essential for the production of leavened baked goods and this is what sets wheat flour apart from nearly all other flours.

Quality of Gluten in Wheat flour

Quality of Gluten: Gluten quality varies in different flours from being very extensible (it can be pull out a long way before breaking) to being very in-extensible or short, and also being more or less elastic (it will return to its original state after being stretched).

The protein content and the quality of the gluten in wheat flour is dependent on the type of wheat floor used.

Strong flours: 10.11% ;

Medium flour: 08.51% ;

Weak Flour: 07.85%.

Gluten in flour produces a stretchy dough Provides carbohydrate, Vitamin B, calcium and iron.

Role of Wheat Flour in Biscuit Manufacturing:

Glutenin and Gliadin proteins which are present in wheat are responsible for the formation of gluten network which provides base to all bakery products. The gluten in wheat is unique among the cereal proteins.

  • Strong Flour – for Cracker type of dough
  • Medium Flour – for semi fermented dough
  • Weak Flour – for short dough

Conclusion: We have shared a complete guide on Type of wheat flour used in biscuits manufacturing. The dough is of three type Soft dough, Medium dough and hard dough. In biscuit manufacturing, we generally used Soft dough and hard dough only.

The gluten percentage lies between 7.5 and 11. Gluten percentage decides the quality of dough. Higher the Gluten percentage harder the dough.

Wheat flour is the basic structural and functional ingredients of biscuits or cookies. It is responsible for making the structural network with its two proteins Glutenin and Gliadin.

Basically, Wheat flour is used in almost all the varieties of Baking products, where hard dough is used in manufacturing of hard biscuits, hard cookies or Crackers (e.g. Marie) while soft dough used in manufacturing of Sweet or sugar varieties (e.g. Glucose).

  • Don’t forget to ask queries related to the Type of Wheat flour used in cookies manufacturing.
  • Post your questions in Comment section below.


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