Use of Acids in Bakery Food Products – Role of Malic Acid

As other acids, Malic acid is also sometimes used in baking products like biscuits, breads, buns, pancakes etc. Mailc Acid is also used in the preparation of creams like orange cream, strawberry cream etc.

In this article we will focus on what is malic acid? its chemical formula, functions of malic acid in baking products, why we use malic acid in baking products and what are the fda regulations on the use of Malic acid in food products. So let us starts with what is malic acid?

Malic Acid

What is Malic Acid and Its Chemical Formula?

Malic acid is a dicarboxylic acid with the molecular formula C4H6O5. It is made by all living organisms and it contributes to the pleasantly sour taste of fruits.

Malic acid is used as a flavor enhancer, flavor agent and adjuvant, and pH control agent in food products. For Better understanding of chemical formula of Malic Acid look at the side Image.

Role of Malic Acid in Baking Products like Biscuits and bread

  • Malic acid has a clean & smooth but persistent sourness.
  • It has flavor enhancement and blending abilities.
  • Malic acid aids the formulator, because it intensifies the impact of many flavors in foods or beverages, often reducing the amount of flavor needed; it blends distinct flavors resulting in a well-rounded flavor experience.
  • Malic Acid improves aftertaste by extending the impact of some flavors; it increases burst and aromaticity of some flavor notes in certain beverage applications.
  • Malic Acid boosts savory flavors like cheese and hot peppers in snack food coatings; it deepens and broadens the flavor profile of many products, resulting in a richer, more natural flavor experience.
  • It has a high solubility rate.
  • It has lower hygroscopicity than citric or tartaric acids.
  • It has a lower melting point than other acids for easier incorporation into molten confections.
  • It has good chelating properties with metal ions.

Why we Use Malic Acid in Baking Products

  • Malic acid is used in baking products to enhance flavors, usually less flavor additives are needed. This improves overall flavor profile and taste more natural.
  • Malic acid is a preferred acidulant since it could enhance fruit flavors, and mask the aftertaste of some salts.
  • In beverages, malic acid is used in place of citric acid which prevents turbidity due to precipitated calcium citrate.
  • Malic acid has a lower melting point than other food acids- this means that it can be incorporated into the molten hard candy without added water which helps in increasing the shelf life.
  • Bakery products with fruit fillings (cookies, snack bars, pies, and cakes) have a stronger and more naturally balanced fruit flavor when the fruit filling includes malic acid. Pectin gel texture is more consistent due to Malic Acid’s buffering capacity.
  • Malic acid is the predominately active ingredient for prune juice concentrate as the natural mold inhibitor for baking products

FDA Regulation on the Use of Malic Acid in Food Products

The ingredients are used in food, except baby food, at levels not to exceed good manufacturing practice.

Current good manufacturing practice results in a maximum level, as served, of 3.4% for nonalcoholic beverages, 3.0% for chewing gum, 0.8% for gelatins, pudding, and fillings, 6.9% for hard candy, 2.6% for jams and jellies, 3.5% for processed fruits and fruit juices, 3.0% for soft candy, 0.7% for all other food categories.

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